Esgaroth, also known as Lake-town or Esgaroth upon the Long Lake, was a small settlement and community of Human in the northeastern part of mapped Middle-earth. The town was constructed entirely of wood and stands upon wooden pillars sunk into the bed of the Long Lake, south of Erebor and and east of Mirkwood.
After Dale was attacked by the Dragon Smaug, Esgaroth remained where it was utilized water as its defense. The Long Lake was also surrounded by towering cliffs and high mountains, all helpful natural barriers that had the potential to aid its defenders in a siege. While these defenses slowed and diverted Lake-town's human enemies, it did nothing to prepare its inhabitants against Smaug.