The Dwarves of Erebor were those who dwelt in the halls of Erebor, beneath the Lonely Mountain.
Thráin the First established the Kingdom under the Mountain fleeing from Moria. During his time the Arkenstone was discovered, the most prized possession of the Kingdom. His son, Thórin I, later became King under the Mountain but after seeing the wealth of the Dwarves of the Grey Mountains, he abandoned Erebor. When the Cold-drakes invaded the Grey Mountains, they drove most of the Dwarves out. Thrór, a descendant of Thórin I, took a large amount of his people and fled the Grey Mountains for Erebor. His brother Grór continued east with a great following of Durin's Folk to the Iron Hills while himself refounded the kingdom of Erebor in TA 2590.
The Dwarves gained the friendship of the Northrons, Stoor Hobbits, and Silvan Elves of Mirkwood along the Celduin and had much trade of goods, beautiful trinkets, and weapons with the town of Dale. The Dwarves of Erebor also had much traffic of ores with their kinsmen in the Iron Hills and the region had peace and prosperity for many years. The Dwarves were properous, and made great wealth for themselves until they were dispossessed of their immense wealth by Smaug the Dragon, who flew south from the Ered Mithrin and sacked their kingdom in TA 2770.
Quest of EreborEdit
After the restoration thanks to Thórin & Company, the Dwarves of Erebor became again rich and prosperous under Dáin's rule, as the Dwarves exceeded their ancestors in masonry and mining. Dale was rebuilt as a kingdom and they had close friendship with the Elves of Mirkwood. However, in TA 2989, Bálin led a colony of Dwarves set out to reclaim Moria. Dáin did not give his blessing when Bálin, but could not dissuade them. It was only later learned the colony was destroyed after five years.
War of the RingEdit
In TA 3002, a messenger came from Mordor, enquiring about "Baggins" from "Shire", promising the last three Dwarf-rings to Dáin. The King asked time to think and he sent Glóin and his son Gimli to Elrond for council, and to warn Bilbo.